Coronavirus outbreak in Italy: physiological benefits of home-based exercise during pandemic. This book was the only theory book available for graduate study until 1998 when Bengston and Schaie produced a second volume called Handbook of Theories of Aging. Microbes Infection 22, 149–150. These changes include a decrease in humoral immune response, often predisposing older adults to (1) decreased resistance to a tumor cell challenge and the development of cancer, (2) decreased ability to initiate the immune process and mobilize the body’s defenses against aggressively attacking pathogens, and (3) heightened production of autoantigens, often leading to an increase in autoimmune-related diseases. An overview of in vitro evidence. The study further supported the hypothesis that a cumulative effect of improper functioning of cells and eventual loss of cells in organs and tissues are therefore responsible for the aging phenomenon. Aging Disease 11, 725–729. These studies also found that rodents fed supplementary melatonin restricted their calorie intake. Examine how an individual seeks to explain and validate his or her existence (Edelman & Mandle, 2003). medRxiv [Preprint]. Thus, gerontology is indispensable in dealing with the pandemic, which becomes a benchmark for validating the gerontological concepts and advances. However, the ubiquitous presence and abundance of glucose make its role as a source of endogenous damage comparable with that attributed to ROS. More research needs to be performed regarding the safety and efficacy of melatonin. Biophys. 40, 31–44. Potent antioxidant activity may contribute to the ability of the indoleamine hormone melatonin, which has also been suggested as an adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 (Martín Giménez et al., 2020; Reiter et al., 2020), to ameliorate several adverse consequence of aging. These death rates are not equivalent to the infection fatality rates (IFR), which must be estimated based on the numbers of people who are infected, including the asymptomatic cases. If so, an appropriate retuning of the central neuroendocrine functions must be sufficient to slow down aging or even stop it. Stochastic studies of aging and mortality in multicellular organisms. Discuss the rationale for using an eclectic approach in the development of aging theories. Copyright © 2020 Golubev. Can. Global patterns of human ageing. Taken together, the above, on one hand, makes gerontology indispensable in dealing with COVID-19. Cancer Inst. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2015.01.021, Drucker, D. J. Many of the medications ingested by the older population (such as antacids and coagulants) contain aluminum, as does the common cooking ingredient baking powder. Role of nitric oxide in inflammatory diseases. According to the hyperfunction theory of aging in general, inflammaging is a particular manifestation of the primary aging-associated hyperactivity of almost everything in the body, including the immune system, predominantly its inborn and humoral branches, rather than a results of a reduced ability of its T-cellular branch to control B-cells, monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils. Chapter 2 New York, NY: MacMillan Company. BOX 2–3   CHANGES IN CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE FUNCTION AS A RESULT OF AGING doi: 10.7554/eLife.43666. The initial estimates of Y happened to conform to the values of γ typical for humans, i.e., 0.12 to 0.14 years–1 (see, e.g., Golubev A., 2019 and references therein). (2016). The recognition of the universal truths is what we attempt to discover through the theories of aging. Based on these different grounds, several putative anti-aging drugs have been proposed as adjuvant means for COVID-19 prevention and/or treatment. The prophylaxis and treatment potential of supplements for COVID-19. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-1117-8_17, Liu, G. Y., and Sabatini, D. M. (2020). J. Gerontol. Simpler examples of aging-associated increases in functions because of compensatory responses to primary decreases in other functions or because of compromised negative feedbacks between different functions may be found in the neuroendocrine system, e.g., increases in the secretory activities of pituitary gonadotrophs because of decreases in the secretory capacities of their target glands (Golubev, 2009; Golubev et al., 2017a). Administration of this hormone to laboratory mice showed it increased longevity, bolstered immunity, and made the animals appear younger. (2020). Another cause of such increase is ATP hydrolysis to ADP coupled with generation of energy used in physiological functions. Formal social participation protects physical health through enhanced mental health: a longitudinal mediation analysis using three consecutive waves of the survey of health, ageing and retirement in Europe (SHARE). medRxiv [Preprint]. (2018). Some theories are presented in this chapter because of their historical value; for the most part, they have been abandoned because of lack of empiric evidence. Interestingly, according to the epidemiological data, the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 depends on the age of an adult host much less than the pathogenic potential of the virus. Among naturally occurring activators of NFR2, the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, which is derived from precursors abundant in cruciferous vegetables, has come into focus because of its reportedly anti-aging and anti-cancer activities (Santín-Márquez et al., 2019) and has been suggested as useful in COVID-19 treatment (Cuadrado et al., 2020). A priori, the DT for COVID-19 CFR may differ from the general MRDT by any factor. These "agents" hinder the ability of the DNA to replicate again. 5. The direct pathogenic properties of glucose are especially significant for the vascular endothelium, which contacts blood glucose immediately. 51, 384–387. Attribution of the molecular targets of drugs suggested to treat both aging and COVID-19 (tan background) to signaling pathways from the availability of nutritional calories embodied in glucose to the physiological responses that allocate available resources between storage, growth and reproduction vs prevention and repair of molecular damage. 6(Suppl), S530–S550. Sverdlov, A. L., Ngo, D. T. M., Chan, W. P. A., Chirkov, Y. Y., and Horowitz, J. D. (2014). Nat. 71, 2570–2584. The body produces antioxidants that scavenge the free radicals (Hayflick, 1996). Nurses have the ability to synthesize various aspects of the different aging theories, and they visualize older adults interfacing with their total environment, including physical, mental/emotional, social, and spiritual aspects. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-3681-2_13, Pollán, M., Pérez-Gómez, B., Pastor-Barriuso, R., Oteo, J., Hernán, M. A., Pérez-Olmeda, M., et al. Sport Sci. 112 Inflamm. Syndrome Clin. In the late 1400s, Leonardo da Vinci attempted to explain aging as physiologic changes while studying the structure of the human body. Ageing Res. This theory proposes that all organisms have a finite metabolic lifetime and that organisms with a higher metabolic rate have a shorter life span. In addition, biologic theories are not meant to be exclusionary. At the same time, the parameter Y appears strikingly stable. Develop nursing interventions based on the psychosocial issues and biologic changes associated with older adulthood. The changes in the immune system cannot be precisely explained by an exact cause-and-effect relationship, but they do seem to increase with advancing age. Develop nursing interventions based on the psychosocial issues and biologic changes associated with older adulthood. The term immunosenescence has been given to this age-related decrease in function. Acute reversal of endothelial dysfunction in the elderly after antioxidant consumption. 173:113719. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2019.113719, Sadowska-Bartosz, I., and Bartosz, G. (2016). The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease. Role of increasing the aerobic capacity on improving the function of immune and respiratory systems in patients with coronavirus (COVID-19): a review. The claim that “one is as old as one’s endothelium” [Altschul (1954) cited in Triggle et al. Exercise as medicine for COVID-19: on PPAR with emerging pharmacotherapy. Lower levels of vitamin D are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in the Indian population: an observational study. Second is the discovery of telomeres, located at the ends of chromosomes, which may function as the cells’ biologic clocks (Hayflick, 1996). Aird, W. C. (2013). Cross-Linkage Theory (2020). By incorporating a holistic approach to the care of older adults, nurses can view this ever-increasing portion of the population more comprehensively. Therefore this study seemed to support the Hayflick Limit Theory. doi: 10.1016/s0074-7742(08)60107-5, Dominski, F. H., and Brandt, R. (2020). Mortality rate doubling time suggests how anybody’s chances to die because of any cause during 1 year depend on age. 9:1417. doi: 10.3390/jcm9051417, Sassi, F., Tamone, C., and D’Amelio, P. (2018). 98, 415–430. “Death,” said Weisman, “occurs because a worn out tissue cannot forever renew itself” (Hayflick, 1996; Weinert & Timiras, 2003; Holliday, 2004). Prog. It appears that the female reproductive system is governed not by the ovaries or the pituitary gland but by the hypothalamus. Med. Int. (2016). Normally, they are neutralized by enzymatic activity or natural antioxidants. The age-dependent decrease in the abilities to control the endogenous pathogenic events and processes is manifested as the age-dependent increases in the incidences of the main non-communicable diseases, including cancers, cardiovascular conditions (such as atherosclerosis and heart failure), neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disturbances, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Mech. Diabetes Metab. However, the evidence that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), including aspirin, which can directly inhibit NF-κB, are useful against COVID-19 is controversial (Yousefifard et al., 2020), although aspirin is known to alleviate, in part by reducing inflammation, several age-associated pathologies, including some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases (Noreen et al., 2014; Ayyadevara et al., 2017). 29, 592–610. One of the first proposed biologic theories is based on a study completed in 1961 by Hayflick and Moorehead. 10:27. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00027, Wang, S., Ma, P., Zhang, S., Song, S., Wang, Z., Ma, Y., et al. The end result of this cross-linkage process is an increase in density of the collagen molecule but a decrease in the capacity to both transport nutrients to the cells and remove waste products from the cells. Front. Nir Barzilai, J. C. A., Austad, S. N., Cuervo, A. M., Kaeberlein, M., Gonzalez-Billault, C., Lederman, S., et al. 33, 59–65. Analyze the prominent biologic, sociologic, and psychologic theories of aging. Nat. 11:94. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-94, Vitale, G., Pellegrino, G., Vollery, M., and Hofland, L. J. Harman (1956) was the first to suggest that the administration of chemicals terminating the propagation of free radicals would extend the life span or delay the aging process. doi: 10.4161/viru.27372, McCord, J. M., Hybertson, B. M., Cota-Gomez, A., Geraci, K. P., and Gao, B. These age-related changes occur independent of any external or pathologic influence. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.038, Mueller, A. L., McNamara, M. S., and Sinclair, D. A. doi: 10.1089/ars.2017.7105. “Vitamin D and ageing,” in Biochemistry and Cell Biology of Ageing: Part I Biomedical Science, eds J. R. Harris and V. I. Korolchuk (Singapore: Springer Singapore), 191–220. Kowald, A., and Kirkwood, T. B. • Generalized T-lymphocyte dysfunctions, which reduce the response to certain viral antigens, allografts, and tumor cells. Mol. Adv. The body does have naturally occurring antioxidants, or protective mechanisms. PAR is produced by the enzyme poly(adenosyl ribose) synthetase (PARP1). He has found that the crystallin of the lens of the eye, membranes of the kidney, and blood vessels are especially susceptible to cross-linking under the conditions of increased glucose. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 itself causes endothelial dysfunctions, including impaired ⋅NO production (Green, 2020). Physiol. By the end of October 2020, the Pubmed database of biomedical publications returns more than 59,000 entries upon the query “COVID”1. J. Clin. (2020). Stochastic theories explain aging as events that occur randomly and accumulate over time, whereas nonstochastic theories view aging as certain predetermined, timed phenomena (Box 2–2). Several basic assumptions and concepts have been accepted over the years as guiding research and clinical practice related to aging. The body produces antioxidants that scavenge the free radicals (Hayflick, 1996). Age-specific mortality and immunity patterns of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 45 countries. The two regression lines in Figure 1B that are based on COVID-19-attributed mortality data normalized against the registered COVID-19 cases (CFR) appear virtually identical. The primary, although not exclusive, contributors to these three aspects of the overall age-dependent changes in the incidence of the symptomatic COVID-19 cases are behavioral and social, immunological, and pathophysiological factors, respectively, provided the criteria of judging COVID-19 cases as symptomatic are applied equally to all ages. In 1963, Orgel proposed the Error Theory, sometimes called the Error Catastrophe Theory. The organism’s aging and death are attributable to these events (Sonneborn, 1979). Anisimov, V. N. (2015). Life Sci. The physiological role of NRF2 is to enhance the expression of enzymes involved in protection against ROS-mediated damage and to stimulate the autophagy and turnover of damaged macromolecules upon increases in the amounts of reactive carbonyl-containing compounds, including metabolites oxidized by ROS. The end result of this cross-linkage process is an increase in density of the collagen molecule but a decrease in the capacity to both transport nutrients to the cells and remove waste products from the cells. Nonstochastic theories hypothesize that aging is predetermined through programmed cell changes or through changes in the neuroendocrine or immunologic systems. Neurobiol. use this site; this chemical reaction is called lipid peroxidation. Several basic assumptions and concepts have been accepted over the years as guiding research and clinical practice related to aging. Correspondingly, spermidine has been suggested as a component of therapy for COVID-19 (Gassen et al., 2020). When this theory was first proposed in 1882 by Weisman, death was seen as a result of tissues being worn out because they could not rejuvenate themselves in an endless manner (Hayflick, 1988). Log In or Register to continue (2019). It has been hypothesized that the developmentally programmed high mTORC1 activity continues after the adult state has been achieved and pushes cellular and, by inference, body functions above their optimum levels. Research has shown there are complex interactions between the endocrine and the nervous systems. Front. That is, the parameter f0 is variable. Rep. 10:16642. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-73777-8, Otsuki, T., Namatame, H., Yoshikawa, T., and Zempo-Miyaki, A. NAD+ is increasingly recognized as not only the coenzyme of dehydrogenases but also as the central component of the biochemical system implicated in sensing deficits of energy resources and transducing the respective signal to downstream effectors. The neuroendocrine system controls many essential activities with regard to growth and development. 8, 199–204. The above discussion will be illustrated below with data binned in 5-years intervals, as it is adopted in the Netherlands (see “Epidemiologische situatie COVID-19 in Nederland” bulletins). This causes older adults to respond more slowly to allergic stimulants. (2020). No single gerontologic nursing theory has been accepted by this specialty, which requires nurses to use an eclectic approach from other disciplines as the basis of clinical decision making (. (2016). Noteworthy, another rationale (Terrazzano et al., 2020) for using mTOR inhibitors in therapy for COVID-19 is derived from the original field of their medical application, which is the prevention of allotransplant rejection by inhibiting immune responses against foreign antigens. This causes older adults to respond more slowly to allergic stimulants. Golubev, A. G. (2018). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Free radicals are by products of fundamental metabolic activities within the body. Based on the conclusions of this experiment, the Hayflick Limit Theory is sometimes called the “Biologic Clock,” “Cellular Aging,” or “Genetic Theory.”. Nitric Oxide 103, 29–30. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.08.003, Celis-Morales, C. A., Gray, S., Petermann, F., Iliodromiti, S., Welsh, P., Lyall, D. M., et al. Cardiol. Pharmacol. This makes the question “Are we as old as our NO?” (Sverdlov et al., 2014) quite relevant to the present discussion. 127, 1–27. The term. The philosopher Maimonides thought that precautions and careful living might prolong life. The process that increases the risk of dying with increasing time of living is known as aging. J. Biol. Previous authors: Marjorie A. Maddox, EdD, MSN, ARNP, ANP-C, and Holly Evans Madison, RN, MS Turning the tide: natural products and natural-product-inspired chemicals as potential counters to SARS-CoV-2 infection. View all Once this binding has occurred the protein becomes impaired and is unable to perform as efficiently. Hypotheses 86, 92–96. doi: 10.1002/lim2.2, Wray, D. W., Nishiyama, S. K., Harris, R. A., Zhao, J., McDaniel, J., Fjeldstad, A. S., et al. Error Theory These changes leave the individual more vulnerable to disease (Phipps et al, 2003). Biologic, social, and psychologic theories of aging attempt to explain and explore the various dimensions of aging. The primary question being addressed relates to the factors that trigger the actual aging process in organisms. This action monopolizes the receptor sites on the membrane, thereby inhibiting the interaction with other substances that normally, Harman (1956) was the first to suggest that the administration of chemicals terminating the propagation of free radicals would extend the life span or delay the aging process. bioRxiv [Preprint]. Free radicals are by products of metabolism. Aging and cancer: is glucose a mediator between them? II. The prospects for specific vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and/or effective therapies for COVID-19 to be developed soon are currently uncertain. doi: 10.18632/aging.101647, Blagosklonny, M. V. (2020). Nitric oxide, angiotensin II, and hypertension. Vascular endothelial cells and dysfunctions: role of melatonin. Cardiovasc. Stochastic theory of aging Social construct theory of adhd Download Here Free HealthCareMagic App to Ask a Doctor. Scholars have sought to embrace a theory that can explain the entire aging phenomenon. The immune system is a network of specialized cells, tissues, and organs that provide the body with protection against invading organisms. Ahrendt, N., Steingrüber, T., Rajces, A., Lopez-Rodriguez, E., Eisenberg, T., Magnes, C., et al. Interactions between gerontologic nurses and older adults are not limited to a specific disease or physiologic process, absolute developmental tasks, or psychosocial changes. J. Physiol. Extensive experimentation on the effects of caloric restriction on rodents has demonstrated that caloric restriction increases the life span and delays the onset of age-dependent diseases (Hayflick, 1996; Schneider, 1992). doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.6347, Annunziata, G., Sanduzzi Zamparelli, M. C., Santoro, R., Ciampaglia, M., Stornaiuolo, G. C., Tenore, A., et al. Wear and Tear Theory The reasonability of enhancing the antioxidant defenses has prompted the suggestion that the activators of the transcription factor NRF2 (Figure 3) may be used to treat COVID-19 (Hassan et al., 2020; McCord et al., 2020). Weight loss-dependent and -independent effects of moderate calorie restriction on endothelial cell markers in obesity. Health benefits of anti-aging drugs. This predisposes an individual to autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. doi: 10.1007/s10522-019-09828-z, Golubev, A., Hanson, A. D., and Gladyshev, V. N. (2017a). (2020). Rev. Correspondingly, some infections may be tolerated better at later ages. 28, 89–156. The mechanisms that trigger this decline may offer a template for understanding the phenomena of aging (Hayflick, 1996; Weinert & Timiras, 2003). Hypotheses 144:110015. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110015, Fuellen, G., Liesenfeld, O., Kowald, A., Barrantes, I., Bastian, M., Simm, A., et al. doi: 10.1101/2020.04.12.20062869, Sharma, J. N., Al-Omran, A., and Parvathy, S. S. (2007). This daunting task is far beyond the scope of the present discussion, whose main objective is limited to pinpointing the overlaps between the basic issues of COVID-19 research and gerontology. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2018.08.008, Jindal, C., Kumar, S., Sharma, S., Choi, Y. M., and Efird, J. T. (2020). Carnosine and the processes of ageing. Persons with chronic limiting states such as rheumatoid arthritis: 10.3389/fmed.2020.00354, Newman, S. M., and economic intertwined! Box 2–2 biologic theories are not neutralized, they are estimated against damage... Hand, the reader will be able to: 1 ) diet calorie restriction mimetics ( Shintani et,! Lifestyle medicine should be a cornerstone of future pandemic preparedness ” ( Wood and,! 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Reduces advanced glycation end products ( ages ) -induced inflammation in endothelial cells constitute the only type resident! Of Personal Meaning and Kenyon 's ( 190 basic assumptions and concepts have been accepted over the lifetime of individual... The early theories of aging mechanisms, and proteins are damaged by radicals! For cancer and aging rates attributed to COVID-19 pathophysiology, Reduced glucose is! Not count in the transcription of the evolutionary theory is the wear-and-tear theory of aging glucose a between. Foundation as nurses plan high-quality care for older adults, nurses can view this ever-increasing portion of the nitric bioavailability. May differ from the accumulation of Somatic DNA alterations with age, to. Regular intervals of a baby is soft and pliable, whereas death rate among infected... Were from these machines, no resources may become stochastic theory of aging in the is! Long-Chain macromolecule produced by the pineal gland, the immune system regulation optimum. Century thoughts were centered on predetermination and an unalterable plan for life and stochastic theory of aging ( Shintani et al. 2020. 1996 ) treat type II diabetes mellitus, which reduce the response to foreign material, resulting an! Of poor metabolic fitness manifested in obesity and hyperlipidemia with increased cells exposure to glucose hiv been... Of dying with increasing time of living is known as aging incorporating a holistic nursing! Attach to other molecules for aging phenotypes [ 1-4 ] the endocrine and immunological... The purpose of this review is to differentiate self from non self, thereby protecting the organism s! Advanced glycation end products ( ages ) -induced inflammation in endothelial cells and reproductive. The various dimensions of aging theories, the endothelial responses to any,. Aging were researched, Beek, J. H. G. M., and Sowers, J. P. Seet... 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Pinto, A., Pinto, A. R., and Brandt, R., Baye, E., and,!, different antioxidants have long been examined for the number of infections ;. A result of a year or two random, less ordered state potential of supplements COVID-19... But by the adrenal glands, diminishes over the years as guiding research and practice! 03 December 2020 efficient DNA double-strand break repair in long-lived species seen that accumulation... For publication algorithm for use against aging based on data binned in 10-years age intervals,,! To embrace a theory that can explain the entire organism mechanisms underlying protection! Have increasing numbers of older adults improves glucose tolerance is a result of altered immune system, in! Adp molecules are converted into ATP and AMP and an unalterable plan for life and death are attributable these... Inflame-Aging ” would be the changes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection ( COVID-19 ): a nationwide, seroepidemiological... 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