Open-end spun yarns are more regular and have a greater degree of uniformity than ring-spun yarns. Thick heavy wool yarns having little twist are not amenable to twist setting, but the integrity of the loops or tufts can be provided by felting the yarns. Filament yarns in the medium-to-fine count range are used in fabrics for apparel, and those in the very fine count range are more appropriate for hosiery and also for carpets, sportswear, and as industrial yarns for technical textiles. The twist of weft yarns is approximately 10% below the warp yarns. Warm (not slippery) 6. Two-ply yarns are commonly used, although the more expensive three-ply yarns give a rounder tuft. The spun yarn is also lubricated by applying a spin finish through metering jets (Fig. Comparison of Artificial Neural Network and Linear Regression Models for Prediction of Ring Spun Yarn Properties. The technology was superseded by more modern screw-extruder polymer melt feeds. Wool tufting yarns and Axminster yarns are usually woollen spun. All natural fibres follow a similar basic routine of conversion to spun yarn which includes four major stages although man-made fibres do not require the cleaning which is necessary for natural fibres. This operation is required in wool spinning because different parts of the fleece contain fibres of different length and thickness. Moreover, POY could be subjected to simultaneous draw texturing, without the need for any pre-draw process, a point that is discussed in Chapter 2. ‘Yarn Spinning System’ is the collective term which describes the sequence of processes that are required to produce a yarn where spinning is the last process in the production of a single yarn. There are filament and spun yarns. The worsted process involves combing the fibres to give this better alignment. Yarns made with longer fibres tend to be smoother, more lustrous and stronger than those made with shorter fibres as do yarns made with fibres that are more aligned. The terms used to describe the spun yarns refer to spin speeds: LOY, low orientated yarn, spin speed around 1200 m/min. The requirements of fabrics for home textiles (such as curtains and upholstery, for example) are drape and esthetics which usually include strength and durability. Expert ID: 721881 United Kingdom Request Expert. During formation of the rotor yarns, some fibres come in contact with the yarn as it is exiting the rotor. The plying process consists of assembly winding and subsequent twisting. The properties of wrap spun yarns could be qualified as very similar to those of ring spun yarns (Angelova 2003). Worsted-spun yarns are smoother and more lustrous than woollen-spun yarns. The given twist is usually in the opposite direction to twist in the component yarn, to form a torque balanced structure. Irregular yarns tend to be weaker than filament yarns. They tend not to slip as … Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail, Characteristics of Spun Yarns and Filament Yarns. Combed yarns are stronger, more regular and more lustrous than carded yarns. Sorting. Ring spinning is a comparatively expensive process because of its slower production speeds and the additional processes (roving and winding) required for producing ring spun yarns. Dull, fuzzy look 2. G.H. Mass irregularity and imperfections: Another important quality parameter of the yarn is its mass unevenness along its length. Pre- tension to Core material: The pretension is needed to regulate the geometrical position of the filament. They tend not to slip as much as filament yarns and do not tend to snag as much. Spun yarns and filament yarns are quite different in terms of aesthetics, structure and performance. In general, spun yarns of either single or blended fibers are the major building materials in woven fabrics. Relative conversion costs move in favour of the semi-worsted system as yarn linear densities become finer. This early system was prone to polymer decomposition, inhomogeneity and discolouration, and throughput speeds were limited. The process enables many different mechanical and physical treatments to be applied to the individual stages of the pure CNT spinning system, and may allow potential for the development of complex spinning processes such as polymer-CNT based composite yarns. Crawshaw, in Specialist Yarn and Fabric Structures, 2011. From the extruder exit, the melt is fed, under controlled temperature and pressure, to the spinning beam. Core- sheath ratio: It has been found that decreasing sheath content will increase the strength of the core-spun yarn. The 40 tex wrap yarns were made on the Yantra PKVE (Prenomit) spinning machine at 150, 250, 350, 450 and 550 tpm, while 20 × 2 tex ring spun yarns were spun at 550 tpm and ply-twisted at 570 tpm. Comparison between wrap yarns and two-fold ring spun yarns: twist liveliness, TL. This is necessary to ensure uniformity of the product by eliminating variations between different sources of fibres or in the case of man-made fibres between different production runs. The linear density (count) of the spun yarn is determined not by the diameter of the spinneret holes but by the throughput of the polymer melt and the speed at which the continuous filament yarn is wound. Loft and bulk depend on size and twist 7. sand or metal powder, or metallic meshes or webs, and their make-up and composition is critical for desired operating melt pressures to be maintained and for pressure consistency between spinning positions. Titanium dioxide is added during polymerisation to achieve desired lustre, when a matt appearance is required. Reduction of strand thickness. The strength of the wrap yarns was quite similar to that of the ring spun yarns (Fig. 1.7. Two types of polyester filaments were used as wrappers: monofilament (2.3 tex) and polyfilament (12 monofilaments, 5 tex). This adversely influenced dye uptake and colour consistency in fabrics. Table 1.1. The characteristics of yarn differ depending on the type of material used to create the yarn. Joints that satisfactorily pass through the tufting elements are routinely produced by air splicing or fusion splicing. Spun yarns may contain a single type of fibre, or be a … The lower values of twist liveliness of wrap yarns make them potential substitutes for two-fold ring spun yarns in some specific applications. Opening is necessary for removing the impurities which are attached to the natural fibres. Spun yarns and filament yarns are quite different in terms of aesthetics, structure and performance. Spun yarn is usually very fuzzy, providing the wearer with warmth. For the same linear density, plied yarns are more expensive than single yarns. Formation of a continuous filament yarn; extrusion from a spinneret into the air quenching zone. Crepe and textured surface may be created from unbalanced yarns. 3.23) withdrawn yarn is passed through the center of the package and each rotation of the spindle inserts two twists. 3.23. The absence of twist in the core of wrap yarns leads to lower elongation at break, compared to ring spun yarns. It is shown that the percentage reduction in strength of open-end-spun yarns compared with that of ring-spun yarns can be minimized by spinning them to coarser counts from shorter cottons. The spun yarns are single strands, apart from twisted-spun and self-twisted yarns, and are often used as single yarn for common textile and clothing application. However, to meet product demands, it may be necessary to twist two or more single yarns to produce plied yarns (Fig. Wool yarns may be continuously scoured and set in coil form on the WRONZ Twistset machine. Due to the differences in performance, spun yarns are usually preferred for apparel; however, exceptions include lingerie, hosiery and fabrics that are required to be windproof. The ring yarns and the core of the wrap yarns were made of a blend of wool and acrylic fibres (40/60%). The rotation of the spindle creates a yarn balloon and imparts one turn per each turn of the spindle, and the yarn is collected onto a package at a constant rate. This is attributed to the different interactions between the fibre properties and the mechanism of yarn formation when different types of cotton are used. Reduction by drawing. Little of the early LOY spin speeds are used today, mainly due to the following: Originally, within the spinning process, a heated metallic grid system was used to form a polymer melt pool, suitable for extrusion (Fig. Spun yarn is the yarn of choice in many woven and knitted fabric products. POY, partially orientated yarn, spin speed around 3500–5200 m/min. Similar principles apply to produce cabled yarns from plied yarns. The drafting processes that are a feature of the semi-worsted system require a high mean fibre length and minimum short fibre content. R.A. Angelova, in Advances in Yarn Spinning Technology, 2010. Schematic diagram of melt spinning process. Wool pile yarns are normally set by boiling in water, namely by hank (skein) dyeing. On drawing, and in some cases also applying heat to the POY, the molecular structure becomes more orientated and there is a large increase in the structured or ‘crystalline’ regions of the chains (Fig. 1.5) are produced by cutting the solidified strands of extruded polymer from the polymerisation process (although continuous polymerisation-spinning processes are sometimes used). Stretch depends on amount of twist. Lint 3. 3.21). According to the performed statistical analysis, there is a significant difference between ring - spun yarn properties and each of the pnuematic compact spun yarns. Majumdar, Mukhopadhyay, Yadav, and Kumar Mondal (2011) studied the properties of ring-spun yarns made from cotton and regenerated bamboo cellulosic fibres and their blends. G.K. Tyagi, in Advances in Yarn Spinning Technology, 2010. The spinneret holes have specific conical entries and length: diameter ratios for optimum performance regarding rheological flow of the polymer melt. Cabled yarns (Fig. 3. Spun yarns are suitable for shirts, trousers, suits, home textiles, and bed linen. Yarns can be made either from short staple length fibers or from filament fibers. Thermoplastic melt-spun yarns comprise long molecular chains of polymers of high molecular weights. On exiting the beam, the melt is distributed to a number of spinning gear pumps that accurately feed the polymer to spin pack assemblies, which comprise filtration medium and the spinnerets (Fig. The best balance between these two tendencies can be achieved by doubling 8–10 slivers and applying approximately the same amount of drafting. Continuous filament yarns are used either as textured or as core spun yarns. The price of rotor yarn fabric is very low than combed and carded yarn fabric. For example, some sewing threads are cabled to attain maximum strength in conjunction with reduced irregularity, stretch, and liveliness. Consequently, doubling (i.e. Normally good quality yarn is produced from good fiber and twist plays vital role in strength and elongation of yarn. This method is used in the production of condenser spun yarns. Spun yarns are produced by placing a series of individual fibres or filaments together to form a continuous assembly of overlapping fibres, usually bound together by twist. Expert in Nonwovens and Spun Yarn Technology and Fabric Properties. Crafters often work with spun yarn. Their low molecular orientation and crystallinity resulted in a poor yarn shelf-life, as molecular structures changed due to stress relaxation and moisture conditions. Sewing threads are folded as they are required to be uniform in diameter and to have no weak places. The final product at this stage is a twisted roving. Expert has researched nonwoven fabric structures since 1985 and has developed techniques for automatic measurement of fibre orientation and pore size distributions. The fabric itself imposes another set of variables, such as sett and weave, to further diversify the overall list of fabric properties. 1.9). Short fibers twisted into continuous strand, has protruding ends 1. [12] Demiryürek, O.; & Koç, E. (2009). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This involves the use of a drawing frame which performs drafting by a series of rollers rotating at progressively increased speeds. The system’s flexibility in its requirements for raw material allows carpet manufacturers to select wools that provide the pile characteristics required in the carpet; and the system can introduce nep, slub and flame effects in the yarn. Modified hole cross-sections can be used for making different filament cross-sections, e.g. This input tension varies with the twist factor, size and the quality of the filaments used. Spun yarns are less lustrous and generally softer in terms of handle than filament yarns. Felting is achieved when the hot, wet yarns are subjected to mechanical action. Smooth Ring Spun Polyester Raw White Yarn On Paper Cone For Sewing Machine. Pre-processing results in the formation of a product consisting of disjoint fibre tufts each only about 1 g in weight. These yarns can be produced at a higher rate. The yarn has a bulky and crimped appearance though under tension it is lean and smooth. the means of the properties of spun yarns and a significant difference among them is observed. The studied factors consist of filament pre‐tension (i.e. Generally continuous filament yarn is used as core and the staple fibres used as sheath covering. Filtration media can typically be particulate, e.g. Polymers are usually supplied as bright, semi-dull or dull variants. 1.4). Twisting fibres into yarn in the process called spinning can be dated back to the Upper Paleolithic, and yarn spinning was one of the first processes to be industrialized. Properties; Grades - Filament Yarn - Spun Yarn; Background ; STAINLESS STEEL SPUN YARN. Raw White 100 Polyester Spun Yarn Z Twist Ne 40/3 with Ring Spun Technics. This is because the tensile properties of the filament yarn generate the bending tension and, together with the linear density of the filament yarn and the amount of wraps per unit length, produce the geometrical configuration of the fibrous core and the inter-fibre frictional forces within the core and between the surface of the core and the filament itself. Yarns made from long length filament fibers and fabrics are like silk. This research investigates relationships between ring-spun yarn quality and fiber properties (measured using the High Volume Instrument (HVI) and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)) given additional information on harvest method and cultivar. However, according to the spinning system used, the yarn structure and properties can be varied considerably to alter packing, surface, and mechanical properties. 1.9. ply twisting) of the single yarns is an obligatory stage in the production. The usual length of the staple of any kind, such as wool, ramie, or any type of synthetic fiber for spinning should be less than 7”. useable mechanical properties for a textile yarn (Table 1.1). Most of the jeans or pant is made by rotor yarn. If handled carefully, they are mostly used as pile warp. Certainly, there has been no definitive yarn development that can fully replace folded ring spun yarn production, but every technology that offers alternatives to these yarns (like Sirospun, Solospun or wrap spinning) is the subject of commercial interest and product development. Comparison between wrap yarns and two-fold ring spun yarns: tenacity. They are made from longer fibres than woollen yarns and the fibres are more aligned than in woollen yarns. In up-twisting, the assembly wound package is mounted on a spindle. Folded yarns are generally stronger than single yarns as any weak places in the single yarns will be less of a problem in the combined yarn. A coarse filament is generally recommended for sewing threads and industrial yarns (Taub, 1980). They had, therefore, to be subjected to a subsequent draw process to stabilise the yarn within a certain time-frame after spinning. Ceramic applicator for metered spin finish. The wrap provides cohesion to the staple fibre core by radial pressures along the wrap helix. Increasing this distance will adversely affect the orientation of the core fibres, and produce yarns with lower strengths and elongations. Virgin Spun Polyester Raw White Yarn Ne 20/2 , Ring Spun Polyester Yarn. Like synthetic yarns they can be set by autoclaving, though the details of steaming conditions are different. Ring Spun Polyester Raw White Yarn Z Twist High Strength 60S/2 Knotless. Subject to pilling 4. Spun yarns are hairy while filament yarns are smooth. I. Stainless steel spun yarn is sometimes used when pure stainless steel yarns cannot be directly applied to the material, such as BCF yarns or polypropylene tapes. Model depicting amorphous and crystalline regions in the molecular chains.16 (a) Amorphous areas (b) Crystalline ordered regions. Mono filaments are filament yarns composed of one single filament. Staple, or spun, yarn is produced from short-length fibers called staple. Figure 13.9 shows that the twistless core of the wrap yarns gave very low values of twist liveliness, compared to the ring yarns, though the increase of wraps led to very slight increases in liveliness. Constant melt pressure is maintained by automatic regulation of the extruder speed. MOY, medium orientated yarn, spin speed around 2000 m/min. There are two types of yarns, i.e., spun yarns and filamentous yarns. Feed yarn property comparisons; LOY, POY and drawn polyester17, X. Gong, ... Y. Zhou, in High-Performance Apparel, 2018. The majority of spun yarn spun yarn is now produced in spinning mills using either the ring spinning or open-end spinning systems. In addition to this the yarn properties which are important for further processing include strength, elongation at break and variation in linear density. The coarse fibre can be used even for producing finer yarns without compromising the cover of the yarn core. Sliver is a rope-like product containing thousands of fibres in any cross-section.

spun yarn properties

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